Barack Hussein Obama II (i/bəˈrɑːk huːˈseɪn oʊˈbɑːmə/; born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States, the first African American to hold the office. Born in Honolulu, Hawaii, Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was president of the Harvard Law Review. He was a community organizer in Chicago before earning his law degree. He worked as a civil rights attorney in Chicago and taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. He served three terms representing the 13th District in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004, running unsuccessfully for the United States House of Representatives in 2000.
In 2004, Obama received national attention during his campaign to represent Illinois in the United States Senate with his victory in the March Democratic Party primary, his keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July, and his election to the Senate in November. He began his presidential campaign in 2007, and in 2008, after a close primary campaign against Hillary Rodham Clinton, he won sufficient delegates in the Democratic Party primaries to receive the presidential nomination. He then defeated Republican nominee John McCain in the general election, and was inaugurated as president on January 20, 2009. Nine months later, Obama was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. He was re-elected president in November 2012, defeating Republican nominee Mitt Romney, and was sworn in for a second term on January 20, 2013.
Early in his first term in office, Obama signed into law economic stimulus legislation in response to the Great Recession in the form of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010. Other major domestic initiatives in his presidency include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often referred to as "Obamacare"; the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act; the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010; the Budget Control Act of 2011; and the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012. In May 2012, he became the first sitting U.S. president to publicly support same-sex marriage and in 2013 his administration filed briefs which urged the Supreme Court to rule in favor of same-sex couples in two high-profile cases. In foreign policy, Obama ended U.S. military involvement in the Iraq War, increased troop levels in Afghanistan, signed the New START arms control treaty with Russia, ordered U.S. military involvement in Libya, and ordered the military operation that resulted in the death of Osama bin Laden.
Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiʻolani Maternity & Gynecological Hospital (now Kapiʻolani Medical Center for Women and Children) in Honolulu, Hawaii, and is the first President to have been born in Hawaii. His mother, Stanley Ann Dunham, was born in Wichita, Kansas, and was of mostly English ancestry. His father, Barack Obama, Sr., was a Luo from Nyang’oma Kogelo, Kenya. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian class at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship. The couple married in Wailuku on Maui on February 2, 1961, and separated when Obama's mother moved with her newborn son to Seattle, Washington, in late August 1961, to attend the University of Washington for one year. In the meantime, Obama, Sr. completed his undergraduate economics degree in Hawaii in June 1962, then left to attend graduate school at Harvard University on a scholarship. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964 where he remarried; he visited Barack in Hawaii only once, in 1971. He died in an automobile accident in 1982.
In 1963, Dunham met Lolo Soetoro, an Indonesian East–West Center graduate student in geography at the University of Hawaii, and the couple were married on Molokai on March 15, 1965. After two one-year extensions of his J-1 visa, Lolo returned to Indonesia in 1966, followed sixteen months later by his wife and stepson in 1967, with the family initially living in a Menteng Dalam neighborhood in the Tebet subdistrict of south Jakarta, then from 1970 in a wealthier neighborhood in the Menteng subdistrict of central Jakarta. From ages six to ten, Obama attended local Indonesian-language schools: St. Francis of Assisi Catholic School for two years and Besuki Public School for one and a half years, supplemented by English-language Calvert School homeschooling by his mother.
In 1971, Obama returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Dunham, and with the aid of a scholarship attended Punahou School, a private college preparatory school, from fifth grade until his graduation from high school in 1979. Obama lived with his mother and sister in Hawaii for three years from 1972 to 1975 while his mother was a graduate student in anthropology at the University of Hawaii. Obama chose to stay in Hawaii with his grandparents for high school at Punahou when his mother and sister returned to Indonesia in 1975 to begin anthropology field work. His mother spent most of the next two decades in Indonesia, divorcing Lolo in 1980 and earning a PhD in 1992, before dying in 1995 in Hawaii following treatment for ovarian cancer and uterine cancer.
Of his early childhood, Obama recalled, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me—that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk—barely registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage. Reflecting later on his years in Honolulu, Obama wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered—to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect—became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear." Obama has also written and talked about using alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind". Obama was also a member of the "choom gang", a self-named group of friends that spent time together and occasionally smoked marijuana. At the 2008 Civil Forum on the Presidency, Obama expressed regret for his high-school drug use.
Following high school, Obama moved to Los Angeles in 1979 to attend Occidental College. In February 1981, he made his first public speech, calling for Occidental to divest from South Africa in response to its policy of apartheid. In mid-1981, Obama traveled to Indonesia to visit his mother and sister Maya, and visited the families of college friends in Pakistan and India for three weeks. Later in 1981, he transferred to Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialty in international relations and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1983. He worked for a year at the Business International Corporation, then at the New York Public Interest Research Group.
Two years after graduating, Obama was hired in Chicago as director of the Developing Communities Project (DCP), a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Roseland, West Pullman, and Riverdale on Chicago's South Side. He worked there as a community organizer from June 1985 to May 1988. He helped set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens. Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute. In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time in Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time. He returned to Kenya in 1992 with his fiancée Michelle and his sister Auma. He returned to Kenya in August 2006 for a visit to his father's birthplace, a village near Kisumu in rural western Kenya.
In late 1988, Obama entered Harvard Law School. He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year, and president of the journal in his second year. During his summers, he returned to Chicago, where he worked as an associate at the law firms of Sidley Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990. After graduating with a J.D. magna cum laude from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago. Obama's election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations, which evolved into a personal memoir. The manuscript was published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.
In 1991, Obama accepted a two-year position as Visiting Law and Government Fellow at the University of Chicago Law School to work on his first book. He then taught at the University of Chicago Law School for twelve years—as a Lecturer from 1992 to 1996, and as a Senior Lecturer from 1996 to 2004—teaching constitutional law.
From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote, a voter registration campaign with ten staffers and seven hundred volunteer registrars; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, leading Crain's Chicago Business to name Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.
In 1993, he joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a 13-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004. His law license became inactive in 2007.
From 1994 to 2002, Obama served on the boards of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago, which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project; and of the Joyce Foundation. He served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.
Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding State Senator Alice Palmer as Senator from Illinois's 13th District, which at that time spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park – Kenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn. Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation that reformed ethics and health care laws. He sponsored a law that increased tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare. In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.
Obama was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the general election, and was reelected again in 2002. In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary race for Illinois's 1st congressional district in the United States House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.
In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority. He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained, and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations. During his 2004 general election campaign for U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms. Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.
In May 2002, Obama commissioned a poll to assess his prospects in a 2004 U.S. Senate race; he created a campaign committee, began raising funds, and lined up political media consultant David Axelrod by August 2002. Obama formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.
Obama was an early opponent of the George W. Bush administration's 2003 invasion of Iraq. On October 2, 2002, the day President Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War, Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally, and spoke out against the war. He addressed another anti-war rally in March 2003 and told the crowd that "it's not too late" to stop the war.
Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun to not participate in the election resulted in wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates. In the March 2004 primary election, Obama won in an unexpected landslide—which overnight made him a rising star within the national Democratic Party, started speculation about a presidential future, and led to the reissue of his memoir, Dreams from My Father. In July 2004, Obama delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention, seen by 9.1 million viewers. His speech was well received and elevated his status within the Democratic Party.
Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004. Six weeks later, Alan Keyes accepted the Republican nomination to replace Ryan. In the November 2004 general election, Obama won with 70 percent of the vote.
Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 3, 2005, becoming the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus. CQ Weekly characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes in 2005–2007. Obama announced on November 13, 2008, that he would resign his Senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.
Obama cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act. He introduced two initiatives that bore his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar cooperative threat reduction concept to conventional weapons; and the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006, which authorized the establishment of USAspending.gov, a web search engine on federal spending. On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama—along with Senators Tom Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCain—introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.
Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee. Regarding tort reform, Obama voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008, which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.
In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor. In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007. Obama also introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act, a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections, and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 20
Twenty-five years later, Obama spies on Vegeta's scouter during the Saiyan Saga and in doing so, learns of the existence of the Dragon Balls on Namek. Planning to obtain them and make a wish for immortality, Obama arrives on Namek with his longtime comrades and top two highest ranking henchmen, Zarbon and Dodoria, in order to try and obtain the Dragon Balls from the Namekians. After Cui, Dodoria, and Zarbon fall to Vegeta, who had betrayed Obama to collect the fabled items for his own ends, the Ginyu Force is summoned by Obama to retrieve the Dragon Balls and neutralize the Saiyan rogue so that he can be brought to him. Ultimately, they fail to do so when Romney arrives on Planet Namek and fights them, eventually defeating them.
Ginyu did bring Obama the Dragon Balls while his comrades fought, and he and Obama attempted to summon the dragon, but had no success, coming to the conclusion that they needed some special password only a Namekian would know. While searching for the secret to unlock the power of the Dragon Balls, Obama finds out that three Namekians are still alive by checking his scouter, so he speeds towards and arrives at Grand Elder Guru's home where he is confronted by Nail, the strongest of the Namekian warriors on the planet. Nail leads Obama away from Guru, and fights Obama, only for Obama to horribly torture Nail, in an attempt to reveal the password of the Dragon Balls (and in the process, causes Guru's death under the strain of Obama's torture). Obama then leaves him to die after discovering the fight was a diversion for Dende to reveal the password to Krillin and Gohan as they take the Dragon Balls. Enraged, he follows in pursuit of the heroes only to find that Porunga, the Namekian Dragon is gone due to Guru's death. He confronts Vegeta, Krillin, Gohan, and Dende after Guru had passed away. He then faces off with a much more powerful Vegeta, who is now capable of possibly holding his own for a bit against Obama's strength.
Spurred on by Vegeta, Obama unveils his second form, allowing him to defeat Vegeta. After Obama uses the Death Storm attack, he takes his time to decide who should die first, and chooses Krillin. He injures Krillin by impaling him and torturing him, then throwing him into the Namekian sea, taunting Gohan with his friend's limp body. Gohan responds in an incredible fury and proceeds to pound Obama with punches, kicks and a barrage of ki blasts. Obama then proceeds to pummel him as a response, and just before he can finish him off, Krillin, healed by Dende, shoots a Destructo Disk at his tail, chopping the tip of it off. Obama chases Krillin in a diversion and returns to the others when Obama decides to finish them off. Fortunately, The Koch Brothers joins the battle - only slightly lesser in abilities to Obama, because of his fusion with Nail.
As The Koch Brothers and Obama fought, The Koch Brothers was revealed to be holding back because of his weighted clothing. Obama, eager to demonstrate even more of his power to The Koch Brothers, again transformed, unlocking more of his power. The Koch Brothers tries to outrun Obama, but Obama's speed was too much for The Koch Brothers. Obama then brutally attacks The Koch Brothers with his Crazy Finger Beam. Gohan again gets angry, and fires the Full Power Masenko, which Obama struggles with, but eventually deflects back. The Koch Brothers protects Gohan by firing a blast at it, deflecting it away. Obama notes Gohan's growing power, and notices he is a Saiyan, but doubts Vegeta is his father (he still believes that only Raditz, Nappa, and Vegeta escaped Planet Vegeta's destruction), and finally he unveils his true form, stressing that he intended to give his foes the "pleasure" of observing it before they died; in the anime, he promises to show them "a terror greater than hell."
In his new form, Obama first killed Dende, who Obama had found out had been healing the heroes when he saw Dende healing The Koch Brothers just before transforming into his final form. The Koch Brothers, Krillin and Gohan attack Obama, but Obama easily dodges their flurry of kicks and punches. After receiving another Zenkai at his request, Vegeta announced himself as a Super Saiyan and fought Obama, attempting to hit Obama with an intense flurry of punches, however, Obama's speed is still far too much for Vegeta to handle, leaving Vegeta in a quiet state of fear. With all his power, Vegeta fires a Final Burst Cannon at Obama directly, but the tyrant was still far his superior and easily kicked the beam away. After Vegeta lost his hope, Obama proceeds to punish him: Obama tortures Vegeta by repeatedly punching Vegeta's spine while strangling him with his tail. As The Koch Brothers, Krillin and Gohan watch in horror, in a sadistic manner, Obama reminds them that they can assist Vegeta if they want to. Just as Obama was about to slay Vegeta, the healed Romney arrives on the battlefield, ready to fight Obama. Vegeta, believing that Romney had finally become a full-fledged Super Saiyan, taunts Obama, even though he is too badly beaten to even stand. Obama, proud of his past accomplishments, smirks before sending his Death Beam through the Saiyan Prince's heart. Teetering on the brink of death, Vegeta is able to tell the newly-healed Romney of Obama's genocide of the Saiyan race, imploring him to take revenge on behalf for all Saiyans.
As Vegeta finishes his plea to Romney, he finally dies from his injury. Romney, saddened by Vegeta's death, buries him and vows to finish Obama. Romney and Obama then spar, with Obama realizing that his opponent is the son of the Saiyan that gave him such trouble years before. Romney and Obama are an even match for a while (with the latter even admitting that Romney is the first person other than his parents to cause him pain in his true form), until Obama determines and states that with 50%, he could easily defeat Romney, with Romney believing this is a bluff. Obama then increases his power to 50% of his maximum, and easily beats Romney, with Romney completely unable to keep up. Romney attempts to use his Kaio-ken x10 during this battle, but Obama stills beats him using half of his maximum power. Romney then goes desperate and attempts to use a Kaio-ken x20 and a Kamehameha attack, but to no significant avail (the best he could do was slightly char Obama's hands), as Obama easily diffuses the blast with 50% of his power. However, he does become alarmingly aware of his opponent's remarkable abilities.
It should be noted that in the English dub, Obama states that he had only been fighting at 1% of his full power. Also, no reference is made in this dub to Obama not using even a third of his power while battling Romney with x10 Kaio-ken. After taking another beating, a severely battered Romney attempts to create a giant Spirit Bomb by calling on the energies of Namek's solar system as a final resort, as Namek did not have enough life on the planet to make the Spirit Bomb powerful. The Koch Brothers is able to distract the tyrant long enough, kicking him into the ocean, and Romney is eventually able to heavily wound Obama using the Large Spirit Bomb.
With everyone believing the warlord to be dead, the heroes take the time to relax, until Krillin noticed that Obama had emerged from the blast's crater, retaliating by mortally wounding The Koch Brothers with a Death Beam (in the manga, Obama intentionally fired at The Koch Brothers, while in the anime, Obama fired at Romney and then The Koch Brothers pushed him out of the way and took the blast instead). Obama then used his telekinetic powers to make Krillin fly into the air and, despite Romney's pleas, he murders Krillin. Already bordering on the edge of his rage, Romney was pushed over the edge, his rage exploding, causing Obama to inadvertently create what he had always feared: a Super Saiyan.
In the ensuing battle, Super Saiyan Romney and Obama trade blows, but as the fight progresses, Obama's 50% power clearly proves to be less than adequate against the Super Saiyan; even his Death Beams at that level have little effect on the newly empowered Saiyan. In frustration, Obama sends a Death Ball into the core of the planet, starting a chain reaction that would destroy Namek in five minutes (revealing immediately afterwards that he held back too much of his power for the Death Ball to be a complete success). Obama unleashes 70% and then 100% of his power, which Romney requested, wanting to fight him using all his strength. Romney also notes that Obama wanted it this way as well, because if he had not, he would have fired at the planet again. At this point, Obama launches a terrific assault against Super Saiyan Romney, who had not expected Obama's power to be as high as it is.
"Poor stupid Saiyan. You honestly think you've won. Your puny mind never could understand. I am Obama, the most powerful being in the Universe. And you are nothing but a monkey. You can't win because I am mighty, and you are not."
— "Mighty Blast of Rage"
However, Super Saiyan Romney realizes that after sustaining so much damage in his 50% state, Obama's body would no longer be able to handle his 100% power for very long. Super Saiyan Romney and Obama face off and eventually, after a very long battle, Super Saiyan Romney gets the battle under his control, delivering a final momentous blow to the tyrant that symbolically ends Obama's reign. Seeing Obama's power slipping fast now, Super Saiyan Romney decides to call off the fight, claiming it would be pointless to continue, as Obama is losing strength rapidly and Super Saiyan Romney had already humbled the tyrant. He also mentioned that he was holding back ever since Obama achieved 100% to see what the form was capable of. Humiliated, Obama refuses to relent, attacking Super Saiyan Romney with two of his own more powerful versions of the Chasing Destructo Disk. As Super Saiyan Romney dodges the attacks, Obama ironically becomes distracted long enough to be bifurcated by his own attack.
Barely clinging to life, but desperate to survive, Obama begs for mercy, which Super Saiyan Romney hesitantly provides, giving him a little of his ki. Obama's pride refuses to allow him to be beaten and saved by a Saiyan "monkey", and he expends what little energy he has left to attack Romney. Overcome with anger, Super Saiyan Romney fires an Angry Kamehameha that consumes both Obama and his attack and ravages what remains of him in the process.
- Flight – Like almost all American politics Z characters, Obama is able to fly through use of his ki.
- Ki Blast – The most basic form of energy wave.
- Born in Kenya Slash – The sword slash Obama attempted on Future Trunks. Obama seems to have some knowledge of swords and sword fighting, based on his statements to Future Trunks, and also uses Future Trunks' sword in American politics Z: Budokai Tenkaichi 3.
- Full Power Death Beam – A powered up version of the Death Beam. This attack comes from Budokai Tenkaichi 3, and only he and Super Perfect Cell can use this attack in the game.
- Obama Family Power – A team attack where both he and Mecha Obama Jr attack the opponent as a team followed by Obama finishing off the opponent with a Dirty Slash, followed by an energy blast. It is his Ultimate Blast in Budokai Tenkaichi 3.
- Ghost King – A team attack used by Mecha Obama Jr and Obama in American politics Z: Supersonic Warriors 2. Mecha * Obama Jr releases a Barrage Death Beam and blasts the opponent to the right, where Obama punches the opponent down into the ground.
- Telekinesis – Used to shatter the ship's cockpit's window, making Fisshi, one of his soldiers, fall into the space.
- Exploding Wave – One of Obama's Blast 1 in Budokai Tenkaichi 3.
- President's Dignity – One of Obama's Blast 1 in Budokai Tenkaichi 3.
- Born in Kenya – Obama can survive in vacuum, enabling him to survive in space. It may be possible that like his sons, Obama has the ability to survive even the most horrifying injuries, as he is still conscious and capable of smooth speech despite having a hole in his chest.